Topics covered:

  • SQL Server Services
  • Types of Databases
  • Authentication and Permissions
  • SQL Server Management Studio
  • Moving a SQL Server Database
    • Through Backups and Restore
    • By Detaching and Attaching

Video (in Bulgarian)

Presentation Content

What is Microsoft SQL Server?

  • _MS SQL Server _ is a Relational Database Management System (RDBMS) from Microsoft
    • The main language supported in SQL Server is Transact SQL (T-SQL), an extension of SQL
    • Powerful, trustworthy, easy-to-use DB server
  • The most recent version is SQL Server 2012
  • Works only on Windows systems
  • A free distribution exists (SQL Server Express)

Services of SQL Server 2012

  • SQL Server – the database engine
    • Responsible for database management, data storage, queries, data manipulation, data integrity, transactions, locking, users, security
    • Executes SQL / T-SQL queries
  • SQL Server Agent – DB monitoring
    • Executes scheduled tasks
    • Monitors SQL Server
    • Sends notifications about problems
  • Distributed Transaction Coordinator (MSDTC)
    • Manages database transactions
    • Supports transactions that span multiple databases
    • Coordinates committing the distributed transaction across all the servers that are enlisted in the transaction
    • Implements 2-phase commit

SQL Server Databases

  • SQL Server has system and user databases
  • System databases
    • Maintain internal information about MS SQL Server as a system
    • Don’t play with them!
  • User databases
    • Databases created by users (developers)
    • Store user’s schemas and data
    • Use the system databases internally

System Databases

  • Master – meta-database keeping data about
    • User accounts
    • Configurable environment variables
    • System error messages
  • Model – a prototype for new databases
  • Tempdb – storage for temporary tables and database objects
  • MSdb – alerts and scheduled tasks

SQL Server Databases

  • Each SQL Server database consists of two files:
    • .mdf file
      • Contains the core data in the database
      • Schema, tables data, and other database objects
    • .ldf file
      • Transaction log – keeps track of transactions
  • You need both these files to use the database

Connecting to SQL Server

  • Connecting to SQL Server requires
    • The name of the server (e.g. localhost )
    • The name of the DB instance (e.g. SQLEXPRESS )
    • The name of the database (e.g. Northwind )
    • Username / password (if using SQL Server authentication)
  • Types of authentication in SQL Server
    • Windows (by using a Windows user credentials)
    • Mixed (both Windows and SQL Server)

SQL Server Users Permissions

  • Each user has certain permissions and roles for a database (Database User Account)
  • A role defines a group of users with the same permissions
  • There are 3 types of roles in MS SQL Server
    • Fixed server roles
    • Fixed database roles
    • User-defined database roles

Fixed Database Roles

  • Public – maintains all default permissions for users in a database
  • Db_owner – performs any database role activity
  • Db_accessadmin – add or remove database users, groups, and roles
  • Db_ddladmin – add, modify, or drop database objects
  • Db_securityadmin – assign statement and object permissions
  • Others…

SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS)

  • SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) is a powerful graphical DB management tool
    • Administrate databases (create, modify, backup / restore DB)
    • Create and modify E/R diagrams
    • View / modify table data and other DB objects
    • Execute SQL queries
    • Free and easy to use tool
    • Works with all SQL Server versions

SSMS Setting Server Account

  • You can use SSMS to create database user / give permissions to Windows users
  • Follow these steps:
    • Right click on the [Security / Login] folder in Object Explorer and choose “New Login…”
    • In the next dialog click the [Search] button
      • Select one of the Windows accounts in a typical Windows fashion
      • Leave the authentication method set to Windows authentication
      • Click [OK]
    • Thus you create an SQL Server User account
      • Account permissions could be assigned later
    • Windows administrators already have access

SSMS Setting Database Account

  • Right click on the “Security” under some of the databases and choose “New”  “User”
  • Enter username and select one of the Server accounts to use
  • Assign the roles for this user
  • Click [OK] to confirm
    • By selecting the [Name-of-Database]  “Properties”  “Permissions” you can also set specific permissions for the accounts

Using SQL Server Management Studio

  • SSMS can be used to visually edit the structure or data in a database
  • It can execute T-SQL queries
    • Select the database you want to work with in the Object Explorer
    • Click the [New Query] button
    • Write the query in the window to the right of Object Explorer
    • Click the [Execute] button

Moving an SQL Server Database

  • Necessary when we install a certain application at the customer environment
  • Ways of moving an SQL Server database:
    • By backup and restore
      • Create backup and restore it on the other server
    • By _detaching and attaching _ the database files
      • The 2 servers must be the same versions!
    • By dumping the database as SQL script
      • Not supported in SSMS

Moving DB by Detaching and Attaching

  • On the source server:
    • Choose the database in SQL Server Management Studio
    • From the context menu we choose the Detach command
  • We copy the database files from the source server to the destination server:
    • <database_name>.mdf
    • <database_name>.ldf


  1. Download and install SQL Server Express. Install also SQL Server Management Studio Express (this could take some effort but be persistent).
  2. Connect to the SQL Server with SQL Server Management Studio. Use Windows authentication.
  3. Create a new database Pubs and create new login with permissions to connect to it. Execute the script install_pubs.sql to populate the DB contents (you may need slightly to edit the script before).
  4. Attach the database Northwind (use the files Northwind.mdf and Northwind.ldf ) to SQL Server and connect to it.
  5. Backup the database Northwind into a file named northwind-backup.bak and restore it as database named North .
  6. Export the entire Northwind database as SQL script. Use [Tasks] -> [Generate Scripts]. Ensure you have exported table data rows (not only the schema).
  7. Create a database NW and execute the script in it to create the database and populate table data.
  8. Detatch the database NW and attach it on another computer in the training lab. In case of name collision, preliminary rename the database.
  9. Download and install MySQL Community Server + MySQL Workbench + the sample databases.
  10. Export the MySQL sample database " world " as SQL script.
  11. Modify the script and execute it to restore the database world as " worldNew ".
  12. Connect through the MySQL console client and list the first 20 tons from the database " worldNew ".